The beginning of 1860s is remarkable by the growth of aggression in fighting between the Native inhabitants and the Americans. Peacefully minded in the beginning, Indians became aggressive when Americans began to hunt buffalos – the main food source for Indians. The wave of wars and revolts followed the advancement of the Americans to the west. Between 1869 and 1878 more than 200 big battles took place with many victims from the both sides. The Native Americans fought bravely and defended their own territories and the resistance was fierce but they were defeated finally as the quantity of the American troops increased more and more and there weapons were better developed. One more important factor which influences the upshot of the war was the spread of the Western railroad. The Wounded Knee battle in 1980 is usually considered to be the end of the war thought there were some big ones later.
The Dawes Act began a new period in the life of the Native Americans. Approved in February, 1987, the Act fixed the reservations as the only place for the Indians and didn't give them any chance to survive outside the reservations.
2. The Tragedy of Holocaust in the Historical Perspective.
...Holocaust comes from Greek word - holokauston, which means an offering consumed by fire. Historically this word is also related to the destruction of the Jews and other groups by Nazi German state during World War 2. Six million Jews and millions of others (Gypsies, Slavs, homosexuals, mentally ill people) were murdered by Nazis between 1933 – 1945. This is an accepted number, but it is certainly not possible to name the exact number of victims of Holocaust. The policy of racial hatred popularized by Adolph Hitler resulted in cruelty and mass murders of social minorities. Some people nowadays do not want to think or to know or do not even believe that Holocaust was a real historical fact. For example "...94% of the French, 84% of the English, and only 62% of Americans believe that the Holocaust really happened..." (Burleigh, Michael and Wolfgang Wippermann. The Racial State: Germany, 1933-1945, New York: Cambridge, 1991). But it was a terrible reality when every Jewish community in occupied Europe was suffering, the Jewish communities in Africa were also persecuted but the Jews from these countries were not sent to death camps or murdered. Death camps were specially organized camps with apparatus for murdering. There were six of them: Auschwitz-Birkenau, Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor, Treblinka. All were situated in Poland. The main goal of Germany was to come to "final solution", which meant to make all the Jews of Europe vanish, for the first time this term was used during Wannsee Conference (Berlin; January 20,1942).The systematic murders of Jews started as soon as Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941. Germans had a system for defining the Jewish:" Anyone with three Jewish grandparents; someone with two Jewish grandparents who belonged to the Jewish community on September 15, 1935, or joined thereafter; was married to a Jew or Jewess on September 15, 1935, or married one thereafter; was the offspring of a marriage or extramarital liaison with a Jew on or after September 15, 1935" (Raul Hilberg. The Destruction of the European Jews. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1961). People were killed just for belonging to this race or even for having some family relations with them. One of the most difficult questions concerning this matter is whether Hitler had the plan to kill all Jews from the very beginning. Not everybody knows that his first steps against them were taken in 1933, when he produced a number of laws boycotting the Jewish shops and businesses, re-establishing the Civil services for all non-Aryans and so on. Certain facts show that Nazis had no operative plan for systematic murders of Jews before the decision to invade the Soviet Union in 1941 was taken...
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