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Definition of Power as a Social Phenomenon.

Definition of Power as a Social Phenomenon. 3. Definition of Power as a Social Phenomenon. (abstract) ...There are a lot of definitions of power. We will define it as an agent's ability to influence another agent, make him to follow his instructions, norms or directions. "In organizations", states Etzioni "enforcing the collectivity norms is likely to be a condition determining the powerholder's access to the means of power." (Etzioni) Etzioni has defined three types of power in his typology. They are coercive, calculative and normative powers which make three systems of organizations accordingly. First type of power called coercive assumes the capacity to use punishments to those who do not follow the instructions or break the rules. Punishment can be physical, verbal, moral and can cause physical harm, humiliation to the individual or deprive his or her of some privileges. Organizations of the coercive type use corporal punishment constraining force and pain for non-obedience. Abilities of coercive power partially met in modern organizations include the ability to dismiss, fine, appoint to undesirable positions Control over the individual and his behavior can be achieved through this type of power, but his values system is very unlikely to change. And even vice versa, the values brought by this system can be strongly disliked and rejected and division of "them and us" is very likely to appear, where "them" means all those who have the power. This power can help to keep things in good order but the changes in the behavior of individuals are temporary and will disappear as soon as the threat of punishment is gone. Intrinsic motivation is very low or absent in this situation and individual is motivated only by the extrinsic factors. Anger and a back-lash conflicts are another counterpart of this type of power...
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